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Package datastore provides a client for Google Cloud Datastore.

Note: This package is in beta. Some backwards-incompatible changes may occur.

Basic Operations

Entities are the unit of storage and are associated with a key. A key consists of an optional parent key, a string application ID, a string kind (also known as an entity type), and either a StringID or an IntID. A StringID is also known as an entity name or key name.

It is valid to create a key with a zero StringID and a zero IntID; this is called an incomplete key, and does not refer to any saved entity. Putting an entity into the datastore under an incomplete key will cause a unique key to be generated for that entity, with a non-zero IntID.

An entity's contents are a mapping from case-sensitive field names to values. Valid value types are:

- signed integers (int, int8, int16, int32 and int64),
- bool,
- string,
- float32 and float64,
- []byte (up to 1 megabyte in length),
- any type whose underlying type is one of the above predeclared types,
- *Key,
- GeoPoint,
- time.Time (stored with microsecond precision),
- structs whose fields are all valid value types,
- pointers to structs whose fields are all valid value types,
- slices of any of the above.

Slices of structs are valid, as are structs that contain slices.

The Get and Put functions load and save an entity's contents. An entity's contents are typically represented by a struct pointer.

Example code:

type Entity struct {
	Value string
}

func main() {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Create a datastore client. In a typical application, you would create
	// a single client which is reused for every datastore operation.
	dsClient, err := datastore.NewClient(ctx, "my-project")
	if err != nil {
		// Handle error.
	}

	k := datastore.NameKey("Entity", "stringID", nil)
	e := new(Entity)
	if err := dsClient.Get(ctx, k, e); err != nil {
		// Handle error.
	}

	old := e.Value
	e.Value = "Hello World!"

	if _, err := dsClient.Put(ctx, k, e); err != nil {
		// Handle error.
	}

	fmt.Printf("Updated value from %q to %q\n", old, e.Value)
}

GetMulti, PutMulti and DeleteMulti are batch versions of the Get, Put and Delete functions. They take a []*Key instead of a *Key, and may return a datastore.MultiError when encountering partial failure.

Properties

An entity's contents can be represented by a variety of types. These are typically struct pointers, but can also be any type that implements the PropertyLoadSaver interface. If using a struct pointer, you do not have to explicitly implement the PropertyLoadSaver interface; the datastore will automatically convert via reflection. If a struct pointer does implement that interface then those methods will be used in preference to the default behavior for struct pointers. Struct pointers are more strongly typed and are easier to use; PropertyLoadSavers are more flexible.

The actual types passed do not have to match between Get and Put calls or even across different calls to datastore. It is valid to put a *PropertyList and get that same entity as a *myStruct, or put a *myStruct0 and get a *myStruct1. Conceptually, any entity is saved as a sequence of properties, and is loaded into the destination value on a property-by-property basis. When loading into a struct pointer, an entity that cannot be completely represented (such as a missing field) will result in an ErrFieldMismatch error but it is up to the caller whether this error is fatal, recoverable or ignorable.

By default, for struct pointers, all properties are potentially indexed, and the property name is the same as the field name (and hence must start with an upper case letter).

Fields may have a `datastore:"name,options"` tag. The tag name is the property name, which must be one or more valid Go identifiers joined by ".", but may start with a lower case letter. An empty tag name means to just use the field name. A "-" tag name means that the datastore will ignore that field.

The only valid options are "omitempty", "noindex" and "flatten".

If the options include "omitempty" and the value of the field is empty, then the field will be omitted on Save. The empty values are false, 0, any nil interface value, and any array, slice, map, or string of length zero. Struct field values will never be empty.

If options include "noindex" then the field will not be indexed. All fields are indexed by default. Strings or byte slices longer than 1500 bytes cannot be indexed; fields used to store long strings and byte slices must be tagged with "noindex" or they will cause Put operations to fail.

For a nested struct field, the options may also include "flatten". This indicates that the immediate fields and any nested substruct fields of the nested struct should be flattened. See below for examples.

To use multiple options together, separate them by a comma. The order does not matter.

If the options is "" then the comma may be omitted.

Example code:

// A and B are renamed to a and b.
// A, C and J are not indexed.
// D's tag is equivalent to having no tag at all (E).
// I is ignored entirely by the datastore.
// J has tag information for both the datastore and json packages.
type TaggedStruct struct {
	A int `datastore:"a,noindex"`
	B int `datastore:"b"`
	C int `datastore:",noindex"`
	D int `datastore:""`
	E int
	I int `datastore:"-"`
	J int `datastore:",noindex" json:"j"`
}

Key Field

If the struct contains a *datastore.Key field tagged with the name "__key__", its value will be ignored on Put. When reading the Entity back into the Go struct, the field will be populated with the *datastore.Key value used to query for the Entity.

Example code:

type MyEntity struct {
	A int
	K *datastore.Key `datastore:"__key__"`
}

k := datastore.NameKey("Entity", "stringID", nil)
e := MyEntity{A: 12}
k, err = dsClient.Put(ctx, k, e)
if err != nil {
	// Handle error.
}

var entities []Entity
q := datastore.NewQuery("Entity").Filter("A =", 12).Limit(1)
_, err := datastore.GetAll(ctx, q, &entities)
if err != nil {
	// Handle error
}

log.Println(entities[0])
// Prints {12 /Entity,stringID}

Structured Properties

If the struct pointed to contains other structs, then the nested or embedded structs are themselves saved as Entity values. For example, given these definitions:

type Inner struct {
	W int32
	X string
}

type Outer struct {
	I Inner
}

then an Outer would have one property, Inner, encoded as an Entity value.

If an outer struct is tagged "noindex" then all of its implicit flattened fields are effectively "noindex".

If the Inner struct contains a *Key field with the name "__key__", like so:

type Inner struct {
	W int32
	X string
	K *datastore.Key `datastore:"__key__"`
}

type Outer struct {
	I Inner
}

then the value of K will be used as the Key for Inner, represented as an Entity value in datastore.

If any nested struct fields should be flattened, instead of encoded as Entity values, the nested struct field should be tagged with the "flatten" option. For example, given the following:

type Inner1 struct {
	W int32
	X string
}

type Inner2 struct {
	Y float64
}

type Inner3 struct {
	Z bool
}

type Inner4 struct {
	WW int
}

type Inner5 struct {
	X Inner4
}

type Outer struct {
	A int16
	I []Inner1 `datastore:",flatten"`
	J Inner2   `datastore:",flatten"`
	K Inner5   `datastore:",flatten"`
	Inner3     `datastore:",flatten"`
}

an Outer's properties would be equivalent to those of:

type OuterEquivalent struct {
	A          int16
	IDotW      []int32  `datastore:"I.W"`
	IDotX      []string `datastore:"I.X"`
	JDotY      float64  `datastore:"J.Y"`
	KDotXDotWW int      `datastore:"K.X.WW"`
	Z          bool
}

Note that the "flatten" option cannot be used for Entity value fields. The server will reject any dotted field names for an Entity value.

The PropertyLoadSaver Interface

An entity's contents can also be represented by any type that implements the PropertyLoadSaver interface. This type may be a struct pointer, but it does not have to be. The datastore package will call Load when getting the entity's contents, and Save when putting the entity's contents. Possible uses include deriving non-stored fields, verifying fields, or indexing a field only if its value is positive.

Example code:

type CustomPropsExample struct {
	I, J int
	// Sum is not stored, but should always be equal to I + J.
	Sum int `datastore:"-"`
}

func (x *CustomPropsExample) Load(ps []datastore.Property) error {
	// Load I and J as usual.
	if err := datastore.LoadStruct(x, ps); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// Derive the Sum field.
	x.Sum = x.I + x.J
	return nil
}

func (x *CustomPropsExample) Save() ([]datastore.Property, error) {
	// Validate the Sum field.
	if x.Sum != x.I + x.J {
		return errors.New("CustomPropsExample has inconsistent sum")
	}
	// Save I and J as usual. The code below is equivalent to calling
	// "return datastore.SaveStruct(x)", but is done manually for
	// demonstration purposes.
	return []datastore.Property{
		{
			Name:  "I",
			Value: int64(x.I),
		},
		{
			Name:  "J",
			Value: int64(x.J),
		},
	}
}

The *PropertyList type implements PropertyLoadSaver, and can therefore hold an arbitrary entity's contents.

Queries

Queries retrieve entities based on their properties or key's ancestry. Running a query yields an iterator of results: either keys or (key, entity) pairs. Queries are re-usable and it is safe to call Query.Run from concurrent goroutines. Iterators are not safe for concurrent use.

Queries are immutable, and are either created by calling NewQuery, or derived from an existing query by calling a method like Filter or Order that returns a new query value. A query is typically constructed by calling NewQuery followed by a chain of zero or more such methods. These methods are:

- Ancestor and Filter constrain the entities returned by running a query.
- Order affects the order in which they are returned.
- Project constrains the fields returned.
- Distinct de-duplicates projected entities.
- KeysOnly makes the iterator return only keys, not (key, entity) pairs.
- Start, End, Offset and Limit define which sub-sequence of matching entities
  to return. Start and End take cursors, Offset and Limit take integers. Start
  and Offset affect the first result, End and Limit affect the last result.
  If both Start and Offset are set, then the offset is relative to Start.
  If both End and Limit are set, then the earliest constraint wins. Limit is
  relative to Start+Offset, not relative to End. As a special case, a
  negative limit means unlimited.

Example code:

type Widget struct {
	Description string
	Price       int
}

func printWidgets(ctx context.Context, client *datastore.Client) {
	q := datastore.NewQuery("Widget").
		Filter("Price <", 1000).
		Order("-Price")
	for t := dsClient.Run(ctx, q); ; {
		var x Widget
		key, err := t.Next(&x)
		if err == iterator.Done {
			break
		}
		if err != nil {
			// Handle error.
		}
		fmt.Printf("Key=%v\nWidget=%#v\n\n", key, x)
	}
}

Transactions

Client.RunInTransaction runs a function in a transaction.

Example code:

type Counter struct {
	Count int
}

func incCount(ctx context.Context, client *datastore.Client) {
	var count int
	key := datastore.NameKey("Counter", "singleton", nil)
	_, err := dsClient.RunInTransaction(ctx, func(tx *datastore.Transaction) error {
		var x Counter
		if err := tx.Get(key, &x); err != nil && err != datastore.ErrNoSuchEntity {
			return err
		}
		x.Count++
		if _, err := tx.Put(key, &x); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		count = x.Count
		return nil
	})
	if err != nil {
		// Handle error.
	}
	// The value of count is only valid once the transaction is successful
	// (RunInTransaction has returned nil).
	fmt.Printf("Count=%d\n", count)
}

Google Cloud Datastore Emulator

This package supports the Cloud Datastore emulator, which is useful for testing and development. Environment variables are used to indicate that datastore traffic should be directed to the emulator instead of the production Datastore service.

To install and set up the emulator and its environment variables, see the documentation at https://cloud.google.com/datastore/docs/tools/datastore-emulator.

Imported by 21 package(s)

  1. camlistore.org/server/camnetdns
  2. camlistore.org/website
  3. github.com/FiloSottile/camlistore/server/camnetdns
  4. github.com/FiloSottile/camlistore/website
  5. github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/datastore/tasks
  6. github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/docs/managed_vms/datastore
  7. github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/getting-started/bookshelf
  8. github.com/broady/gradleplease/updater
  9. github.com/codegp/cloud-persister
  10. github.com/dataux/dataux/backends/datastore
  11. github.com/luci/gae/impl/cloud
  12. github.com/mpl/camlistore/server/camnetdns
  13. github.com/nyaxt/otaru/gcloud/auth
  14. github.com/nyaxt/otaru/gcloud/datastore
  15. github.com/nyaxt/otaru/gcloud/util
  16. github.com/oyvindsk/web-was.id.ly/test
  17. github.com/tortuoise/golang-samples/datastore/tasks
  18. github.com/tortuoise/golang-samples/getting-started/bookshelf
  19. golang.org/x/build/cmd/buildstats
  20. golang.org/x/build/cmd/coordinator
  21. golang.org/x/build/cmd/coordinator/buildongce

Imported only in test by 10 package(s)

  1. cloud.google.com/go
  2. cloud.google.com/go/trace
  3. github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/gcloud-golang
  4. github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/gcloud-golang/datastore
  5. github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/gcloud-golang/trace
  6. github.com/Nitecon/gcloud-golang/datastore
  7. github.com/jba/google-cloud-go
  8. github.com/jba/google-cloud-go/datastore
  9. github.com/tortuoise/gcloud-golang/datastore
  10. github.com/twmb/google-cloud-go

Imports 13 package(s)

  1. google.golang.org/api/transport
  2. google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/type/latlng
  3. github.com/golang/protobuf/ptypes/wrappers
  4. google.golang.org/api/option
  5. google.golang.org/grpc
  6. google.golang.org/grpc/metadata
  7. github.com/golang/protobuf/proto
  8. google.golang.org/api/iterator
  9. github.com/golang/protobuf/ptypes/timestamp
  10. golang.org/x/net/context
  11. google.golang.org/grpc/codes
  12. cloud.google.com/go/internal/fields
  13. google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/datastore/v1

Test imports 1 package(s)

  1. cloud.google.com/go/internal/testutil